Long-term residential treatment provides care 24 hours a day, generally in non -hospital settings. The best-known residential treatment model is the therapeutic community based on the multidisciplinary treatment program. The program is designed to treat drug and alcohol problems with lengths of stay of 4 months. This program focus on the “re-socialization” of the individual and use the program’s entire community—including other residents, follow-ups, volunteers, staff, and the social context—as active components of treatment. Addiction is viewed in the context of an individual’s social and psychological deficits, and treatment focuses on developing personal accountability and responsibility as well as socially productive lives. Treatment is highly structured and can be confrontational at times, with activities designed to help residents examine damaging beliefs, self-concepts, and destructive patterns of behavior and adopt new, more harmonious and constructive ways to interact with others.

Individualized drug counseling not only focuses on reducing or stopping illicit drug or alcohol use; it also addresses related areas of impaired functioning—such as employment status, illegal activity, and family/social relations—as well as the content and structure of the patient’s recovery program. Through its emphasis on short-term behavioral goals, individualized counseling helps the patient develop coping strategies and tools to abstain from drug use and maintain abstinence.